Experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de la población general

Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Beatriz Lucas-Molina, Alicia Pérez-Albéniz, Félix Inchausti, Javier Ortuño-Sierra

Resumen


El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre las experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y el consumo de cannabis en una muestra representativa de adolescentes de la población general. Un total de 1,588 estudiantes (M=16,13 años; DT = 1,36), 739 eran hombres (46,5%), pertenecientes a 34 escuelas y 98 aulas, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado por conglomerados, fueron encuestados. Los instrumentos administrados fueron el Cuestionario de Pródromos de Psicosis-Breve, el Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades, el Cuestionario de Consumo de Sustancias Modificado, el Penn Matrix Reasoning Test (PMRT), la Family Affluence Scale-II y la Escala Oviedo de Infrecuencia de Respuesta. Los resultados mostraron que un porcentaje de adolescentes informaron de experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y/o consumo de cannabis. Antes de controlar el efecto de múltiples covariables (género, edad, nivel socio-económico, consumo de tabaco, problemas emocionales y CI), los jóvenes consumidores de cannabis informaron de un mayor riesgo teórico de psicosis. Cuando se controló el efecto de las covariables, las experiencias psicóticas no se asociaron con el consumo de cannabis. El análisis mediacional indicó que los problemas en el ajuste emocional y comportamental mediaban en la relación entre consumo de cannabis y experiencias psicotiformes. Parece ser que, una vez controlado el efecto de las múltiples variables de confundido, el uso de cannabis aumenta el riesgo de psicopatología comórbida y esta a su vez el riesgo de psicosis (mayor frecuencia de experiencias psicóticas). Estos resultados sugieren que la relación que se establece entre las experiencias psicóticas y el cannabis es compleja y se encuentra mediada por variables relevantes. Futuros estudios deberán examinar las interacciones Gen x Ambiente en estudios longitudinales. 

 

Palabras clave


Riesgo de psicosis; Adolescencia; Cannabis; Consumo de drogas; Experiencias psicóticas atenuadas.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1149

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