Resultados del programa de prevención escolar Unplugged sobre el uso del tabaco en la República Checa

Michal Miovsky, Petr Novak, Lenka Stastna, Roman Gabrhelik, Lucie Jurystova, Jiri Vopravil

Resumen


Unplugged es un programa de prevención escolar que se desarrolla en diversos países europeos, y que cuenta ya con varias evaluaciones. En este caso se pretende medir el impacto de la intervención sobre el consumo de tabaco utilizando las prevalencias de por vida y los últimos 30 días, así como también verificar la duración del efecto mediante un seguimiento. El estudio se diseñó como un ensayo controlado aleatorio. La intervención se basa en el modelo de influencia social integral y se compone de 12 lecciones impartidas a los adolescentes checos en el año académico 2007-
2008. Las prevalencias se calcularon para evaluar las diferencias entre el grupo experimental (N = 914) y control (n = 839) al cabo de 1, 3, 12, 15 y 24 meses después del final de la intervención. Los datos se recogieron utilizando la versión 2003 del cuestionario del proyecto ESPAD. En cuanto a haber fumado los últimos 30 días había diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en favor de la experimental al finalizar la intervención. Dos años después de la finalización de la intervención de los grupos experimentales y de control de 30 días mostraron tasas de prevalencia de 26,7% y 33,1%, respectivamente (p = .01). La progresión en la prevalencia
durante los últimos 30-días dentro del grupo experimental fue significati- vamente más lenta que entre el grupo de control durante el período medido. Las diferencias en las tasas de prevalencia de vida no fueron sin embargo significativas. Por tanto la implementación del programa Unplugged resultó significativamente positiva en cuanto al consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes checos.

Palabras clave


adolescencia; prevención escolar; ensayo controlado aleatorio; tabaco; República Checa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.92