Psicosis inducida por cannabis: características clínicas y su diferenciación con la esquizofrenia con y sin consumo de cannabis asociado

David Rentero Martín, Francisco Arias, Sergio Sánchez-Romero, Gabriel Rubio, Roberto Rodríguez-Jiménez


El consumo de cannabis se considera un factor de riesgo establecido para el desarrollo de psicosis. Diferenciar los trastornos inducidos por cannabis de la esquizofrenia resulta útil desde el punto de vista pronóstico y terapéutico. Se diferenciaron tres grupos de pacientes hospitalizados: psicosis inducida por cannabis (PIC) (n = 69; Media de edad = 27,4, DE = 6,5; 82,6 % varones), esquizofrenia con abuso o dependencia de cannabis (EZ + CB) (n = 57; Media de edad = 31,9, DE = 10,1; 94,7% varones) y esquizofrenia sin abuso o dependencia de cannabis (EZ) (n = 181; Media de edad = 41,8, DE = 13,3; 54,1% varones). Se utilizó la escala Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM-IV) para la diferenciación de cuadros inducidos. El grupo PIC presentó puntaciones inferiores en la subescala PANSS negativa (M = 12,9, DE = 5,9; F = 32,24; p < 0,001), menos alucinaciones auditivas (60,3%; ÷²  = 6,60; p = 0,037) y mayor presencia de manía (26,1% vs. 12,3%; ÷² = 32,58; p < 0,001) en comparación con el grupo EZ + CB. Hubo pocas diferencias clínicas entre los pacientes con esquizofrenia, independientemente del consumo de cannabis. La edad del primer ingreso por psicosis fue menor en ambos grupos de psicóticos consumidores (M = 26,1, DE = 6,4 en PIC y M = 25,3, DE = 6,2 en EZ + CB; ÷² = 20,02; p < 0,001). No se observó un patrón clínico característico de las psicosis inducidas por cannabis, aunque sí se demostró el papel precipitante del cannabis en la aparición de psicosis, dada la menor edad de ingreso en los consumidores.

Palabras clave

Psicosis; Esquizofrenia; Cannabis; Psicosis inducidas

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