Revisión sistemática sobre el manejo clínico del dolor crónico y el trastorno por uso de opioides simultáneo

Beltrán Jiménez-Fernández, Cristina Calomarde-Gómez, Ana López-Lazcano, Anna Lligoña, Antoni Gual, Hugo López-Pelayo

Resumen


La crisis causada por los opioides recetados y sus efectos secundarios relacionados son un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. La mayoría de estos medicamentos se recetan para el afrontamiento del dolor crónico. La coexistencia del trastorno por uso de opioides (TUO) en pacientes con dolor crónico representa un desafío complejo debido a la necesidad de controlar tanto el dolor como el TUO. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es evaluar la eficacia de los tratamientos posibles para dicha población con TUO y dolor crónico. Se ha realizado una revisión sistemática usando las bases de datos Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO y ClinicalTrials.gov, conforme a las pautas PRISMA. Los artículos elegibles abordaron los resultados en pacientes con dolor crónico y diagnóstico comórbido de TUO, después de aplicar una intervención. De 593 artículos identificados, nueve eran elegibles para la revisión cualitativa (n = 7 intervenciones farmacológicas; n = 2 intervenciones psicológicas). La metadona, la buprenorfina, la terapia cognitivo-conductual y el mindfulness mostraron resultados prometedores, pero los datos no eran concluyentes (<2 ECA con bajo riesgo de sesgo). No está claro si el tratamiento con agonistas opioides debe mantenerse o disminuirse y qué fármaco debe prescribirse para la terapia de sustitución de opioides (metadona o buprenorfina/naloxona). El mindfulness y la terapia cognitivo-conductual tienen un efecto discreto en la mejora del afecto negativo, pero no del dolor. El enfoque terapéutico podría individualizarse sobre la base de una toma de decisiones conjunta.


Palabras clave


Trastorno por uso de opioides; dolor crónico; metadona; buprenorfina; terapia cognitivo-conductual.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1680

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