Cannabis: efectos nocivos sobre la salud física

M. Quiroga


El cannabis es la droga ilegal más usada y la que más tempranamente se empieza a consumir. De los efectos que ejerce sobre la salud, la Organización Mundial de la Salud emitió un informe en 1981 que actualizó en 1997. Se sabe que su uso tiene efectos perjudiciales agudos y crónicos. Entre los agudos, alterar la cognición y la respuesta psicomotora, lo que aumenta el riesgo de accidentes de tráfico. Entre los crónicos, afecta selectivamente el aprendizaje y la memoria tanto en adultos como en hijos de madres consumidoras, causa lesiones en el sistema respiratorio y altera la respuesta de algunas células inmunitarias. 

Palabras clave

cannabis; cognición; psicomotor; respiratorio; embarazo; inmunidad

Texto completo:



Addiction Research Foundation/World Health Organization. Report of an ARF/WHO Scientific Meeting on the Adverse Health and Behavioural Consequences of Cannabis Use. Addition Research Foundation, Toronto, 1981.

Division of mental health and prevention of substance abuse. World Health Organization. Cannabis: a health perspective and research agenda. WHO/MSA/PSA/97.4, English Only Distr.: General. Geneva, 1997.

Hansen AC, Kristensen IB, Dragsholt C. Prevalence of cannabinoids in urine samples from forensic autopsies. Med Sci Law 1999 Jul;39(3):228-32.

Nahas G. Haschis, cannabis et marijuana. Premièr Edition, Vendôme (France), Presses Universitaires de Fance, 1976.

Nahas G, Latour C. The human toxicity of marijuana. Med J Aust 1992 Apr;156(7):495-7.

Polen MR, Sidney S, Tekawa IS, Sadler M, Friedman GD. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med 1993 Jun;158(6):596-601.

Thomas H. A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend 1996 Nov;42(3):201-7.

Robertson JR, Miller P, Anderson R. Cannabis use in the community. Br J Gen Pract 1996 Nov;46(412):671-4.

Baldwin GC, Tashkin DP, Buckley DM, Park AN, Dubinett SM, et al. Marijuana and cocaine impair alveolar macrophage function and cytokine production. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997 Nov;156(5):1606-13.

Hall W, Solowij N. Adverse effects of cannabis. Lancet 1998 Nov;352(9140):1611-16.

Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial syntesis of an active component of haschish. Amer Chem Soc 1964; 86:1646-1647.

Ameri A. The effects of cannabinoids on the brain. Prog Neurobiol 1999 Jul; 58(4):315-48.

Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Humphreys D, Lowe JV, Weithe KE. Depersonalization after marijuana smoking. Biol Psychiatry 1993 Mar;33(6):431-41.

Block RI, Farinpour R, Braverman K. Acute effects of marijuana on cognition: relationships to chronic effects and smoking techniques. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992 Nov;43(3):907-17.

Wilson WH, Ellinwood EH, Mathew RJ, Johnson K. Effects of marijuana on performance of a computerized cognitive-neuromotor test battery. Psychiatry Res 1994 Feb;51(2):115-25.

Soderstrom CA, Trifillis AL, Shankar BS, Clark WE, Cowley RA. Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. A prospective study. Arch Surg 1988 Jun;123(6)733-7.

Budd RD, Muto JJ, Wong JK. Drugs of abuse found in fatally injured drivers in Los Angeles County. Drug Alcohol Depend 1989 Apr;23(2);153-8.

Francis M, Eldemire D, Clifford R. A pilot study of alcohol and drug-related traffic accidents and death in two Jamaican parishes, 1991. West Indian Med J 1995 Sep;44(3):99-101.

Lund AK, Preusser DF, Blomberg RD, Williams AF. Drug use by tractor-trailer drivers. J Forensic Sci 1998 May;33(3):648-61.

Marquet P, Delpla PA, Kerguelen S, Bremond J, Facy F, Garnier M, et al. Prevalence of drugs of abuse in urine of drivers involved in road accidents in France: a collaborative study. J Forensic Sci 1998 Jul;43(4):806-11.

Walsh GW, Mann RE. On the high road: driving under the influence of cannabis in Ontario. Can J Public Health 1999 Jul-Aug;90(4):260-3.

Seymour A, Oliver JS. Role of drugs and alcohol in impaired drivers and fatally injured drivers in the Strathclyde police region of Scotland, 1995-1998. Forensic Sci Int 1999 Jul 26;103(2):89-

Battista HJ, Fleischhacker WW. Effect of cannabis use on cognitive functions and driving ability. J Clin Psychiatry 1999 Jun;60(6):395-9.

Belgrave BE, Bird KD, Chesher GB, Jackson DM, Lubbe KE, Starmer GA, et al. The effect of (-) trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, alone and in combination with ethanol, on human performance.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1979 Mar;62(1):53-60.

Perez-Reyes M, Hicks RE, Bumberry J, Jeffcoat AR, Cook CE. Interaction between marihuana and ethanol: effects on psychomotor performance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1988 Apr;12(2): 268-76.

Heishman SJ, Arasteh K, Stitzer ML. Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1997 Sep;58(1):93-101.

Stacy AW. Memory activation and expectancy as prospective predictors of alcohol and marijuana use. J Abnorm Psychol 1997 Feb;106(1):61-73.

Chait LD, Perry JL. Effects of alcohol pretreatment on human marijuana self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl)1994 Jun;113(3-4)346-50.

Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M, Bozzetti LP. Simulated flying performance after marihuana intoxication. Aviat Space Environ Med 1976 Feb;47(2)124-8.

Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M, Bozzetti LP. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability. Am J Psychiatry 1976 Apr;133(4): 384-8.

Yesavage JA, Leirer VO, Denari M, Hollister LE. Carry-over effects of marijuana intoxication on aircraft pilot performance: a preliminary report. Am J Psychiatry 1985 Nov;142(11):1325-9.

Leirer VO, Yesavage JA, Morrow DG. Marijuana, aging, and task difficulty effects on pilot performance. Aviat Space Environ Med 1989 Dec;60(12):1145-52.

Leirer VO, Yesavage JA, Morrow DG. Marijuana carry-over effects on aircraft pilot performance. Aviat Space Environ Med 1991 Mar;62(3): 221-7.

Heishman SJ, Huestis MA, Henningfield JE, Cone EJ. Acute and residual effects of marijuana: profiles of plasma THC levels, physiological, subjective, and performance measures. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990 Nov;37(3):561-5.

Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Humphreys DF, Lowe JV, Wiethe KE. Regional cerebral blood flow after manjuana smoking. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992 Sep;12(5):750-8.

Mathew RJ, Wilson WH. Acute changes in cerebral blood flow after smoking marijuana. Life Sci 1993;52(8):757-67.

Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Coleman RE, Turkington TG, DeGrado TR. Marijuana intoxication and brain activation in marijuana smokers. Life Sci 1997;60(23):2075-89.

Lukas SE, Mendelson JH, Benedikt R. Electroencephalographic correlates of marihuana-induced euphoria. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995 Feb;37 (2):131-40.

Patrick G, Straumanis JJ, Struve FA, Fitz-Gerald MJ, Manno JE. Early and middle latency evoked potentials in medically and psychiatrically normal daily marihuana users: a paucity of significant findings. Clin Electroencephalogr 1997 Jan;28(1):26-31.

Azorlosa JL, Heishman SJ, Stitzer ML, Mahaffey JM. Marijuana smoking: effect of varying delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and number of puffs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992 Apr;261 (1):114-22.

Zacny JP, Chait LD. Response to marijuana as a function of potency and breathhold duration. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991;103(2):223-6.

Block RI, Erwin WJ, Farinpour R, Braverman K. Sedative, stimulant, and other subjective effects of marijuana: relationships to smoking techniques. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998 Feb;59(2):405-12.

Huestis MA, Sampson AH, Holicky BJ, Henningfield JE, Cone EJ. Characterization of the absorption phase of marijuana smoking. ClinPharmacol Ther 1992 Jul;52(1):31-41.

Huestis MA, Henningfield JE, Cone EJ. Blood cannabinoids. I. Absorption of THC and formation of 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH during and after smoking marijuana. J Anal Toxicol 1992 Sep-Oct;16(5):276-82.

Huestis MA, Henningfield JE, Cone EJ. Blood cannabinoids. II. Models for the prediction of time of marijuana exposure from plasma concentrations of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). J Anal Toxicol 1992 Sep-Oct;16 (5):283-90.

Cone EJ, Huestis MA. Relating blood concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites to pharmacologic effects and time of marijuana usage. Ther Drug Monit 1993 Dec;15(6):527-32.

Harder S, Rietbrock S. Concentration-effect relationship of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiol and prediction of psychotropic effects after smoking marijuana. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997 Apr;35(4):155-9.

Camí J, Guerra D, Ugena B, Segura J, de la Torre R. Effect of subject expectancy on the THC intoxication and disposition from smoked hashish cigarettes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Sep;40(1):115-9.

Solowij N, Michie PT, Fox AM. Effects of long-term cannabis use on selective attention: an eventrelated potential study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Nov;40(3):683-8.

Solowij N. Do cognitive impairments recover following cessation of cannabis use? Life Sci 1995;(56(23-24):2119-26.

Solowij N, Grenyer BF, Chesher G, Lewis J. Biopsychosocial changes associated with cessation of cannabis use: a single case study of acute and chronic cognitive effects, withdrawal and treatment. Life Sci 1995;56(23-24):2127-34.

Solowij N, Michie PT, Fox AM. Differential impairments of selective attention due to frequency and duration of cannabis use. Biol Psychiatry 1995 May;37(10):731-9.

Solowij N. Cannabis and cognitive functioning. Cambrige University Press. 1998.

Block, RI, Ghoneim, MM. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1993;110(1-2):219-28.

Pope HG Jr, Yurgelun-Todd D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. JAMA 1996 Feb;275(7):521-7.

Pope HG Jr, Jacobs A, Mialet JP, Yurgelun-Todd D, Gruber S. Evidence for a sex-specific residual effect of cannabis on visuospatial memory.

Psychother Psychosom 1997;66(4):179-84. Hoehe MR. Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999 Mar;142(3): 295-301.

Struve FA, Straumanis JJ, Patrick G, Price L. Topographic mapping of quantitative EEG variables in chronic heavy marihuana users: empirical findings with psychiatric patients. Clin Electroencephalogr 1989 Jan;20(1)6-23.

Struve F, Straumanis J, Patrick G, Raz Y. Quantitative EEG studies of chronic THC abuse: (1).

Replications of topographic findings, (2). Within EEG band spectral power shifts, (3). Discriminant function analysis of chronic use vs nonuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1991;105:608-9.

Struve FA, Straumanis JJ, Patrick G. Persistent topographic quantitative EEG sequelae of chronic marihuana use: a replication study and initial discriminant function analysis. Clin Electroencephalogr 1994 Apr;25(2):63-75.

Struve FA, Patrick G, Straumanis JJ, Fitz-Gerald MJ, Manno J. Possible EEG sequelae of very long duration marihuana use: pilot findings from topographic quantitative EEG analyses of subjects with 15 to 24 years of cumulative daily exposure to THC. Clin Electroencephalogr 1998 Jan;29(1):31-6.

Patrick G, Straumanis JJ, Struve FA, Fitz-Gerald MJ, Leavitt J, Manno JE. Reduced P50 auditory gating response in psychiatrically normal chronic marihuana users: a pilot study. Biol Psychiatry 1999 May;45(10):1307-12. Amen DG, Waugh M. High resolution brain SPECT imaging of marijuana smokers with AD/HD. J Psychoactive Drugs 1998 Apr;30(2):209-14.

Simmons MS, Tashkin DP. The relationship of tobacco and marijuana smoking characteristics. Life Sci 1995;56(23-24):2185-91.

Wu TC, Tashkin DP, Djahed B, Rose JE. Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco. N Engl J Med 1988 Feb;318(6): 347-51.

Gold MS. Marihuana. Primera edición, Barcelona, Ediciones en Neurociencias, 1991, 67-8.

Sherrill DL, Krzyzanowski M, Bloom JW, Lebowitz MD. Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes: a longitudinal study in general population. Int J Epidemiol 1991 Mar;20(1):132-7.

Wu HD, Wright RS, Sassoon CS, Tashkin DP. Effects of smoked marijuana of varying potency on ventilatory drive and metabolic rate. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992 Sep;146(3):716-21.

Wengen DF. [Marijuana and malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract in young patients. On the risk assessment of marijuana]. Laryngorhinootologie 1993 May;72(5):264-7.

Wallace JM, Oishi JS, Barbers RG, Simmons MS, Tashkin DP. Lymphocytic subpopulation profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood from tobacco and marijuana smokers. Chest 1994 Mar;105(3):847-52.

Roth MD, Arora A, Barsky SH, Kleerup EC, Simmons M, Tashkin DP. Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998 Mar;157(3 Pt 1):928-37.

Roby TJ, Hubbard G, Swan, GE. Cytomorphologic features of sputum samples from marijuana smokers. Diagn Cytopathol 1991;7(3):229-34. Starr K, Renneker M. A cytologic evaluation of sputum in marijuana smokers. J Fam Pract 1994 Oct;39(4):359-63.

Okereke UN, Weber BE, Israel RH. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in an 18-year-old black Sudanese high school student. J Natl Med Assoc 1999 Jun; 91(6):357-9.

Taylor FM. Marijuana as a potential respiratory tract carcinogen: a retrospective analysis of a community hospital population. South Med J 1988 Oct;81(10):1213-6.

Barsky SH, Roth MD, Kleerup EC, Simmons M, Tashkin DP. Histopathologic and molecular alterations in bronchial epithelium in habitual smokers of marijuana, cocaine, and/or tobacco. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998 Aug;909(16):1198-205.

Hall W. The respiratory risks of cannabis smoking. Addiction 1998 Oct; 93(10):1461-3.

Brigel P. Marijuana and cancer risk. Postgrad Med 1999 Jun;105(7):33, 36.

Menkes DB, Howard RC, Spears GF, Cairns ER. Salivary THC following cannabis smoking correlates with subjective intoxication and heart rate. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991;103(2): 277-9.

Chait LD, Zacny JP. Reinforcing and subjective effects of oral delta 9-THC and smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;107(2-3):255-62.

Newlin DB, Pretorius MB, Wong CJ, Dax EM. Acute marijuana smoking reduces vagal tone. NIDA Res Monogr 1991;105:565-66.

Foltin RW, Fischman MW. The effects of combinations of intranasal cocaine, smoked marijuana, and task performance on heart rate and blood pressure. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990 Jun;36(2):311-5.

Lukas SE, Sholar M, Kouri E, Fukuzako H, Mendelson JH. Marihuana smoking increases plasma cocaine levels and subjective reports of euphoria in male volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994 Jul;48(3):715-21.

Perez-Reyes M, Burstein SH, White WR, McDonald SA, Hicks RE. Antagonism of marihuana effects by indomethacin in humans. Life Sci 1991:48(6):507-15.

Mathew RJ, Wilson WH, Humphreys D, Lowe JV, Wiethe KE. Middle cerebral artery velocity during upright posture after marijuana smoking. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992 Aug;86 (2):172-8.

Perez-Reyes M, White WR, McDonald SA, Hicks RE, Jeffcoat AR, Cook CE. The pharmacologic effects of daily marijuana smoking in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Nov;40(3): 691-4.

Scherwitz LW, Perkins LL, Chesney MA, Hughes GH, Sidney S, Manolio TA. Hostility and health behaviors in young adults: the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol 1992 Jul;136 (2):136-45.

Disdier P, Swiader L, Jouglard J, Piquet P, Christides C, Moulin G, Harlé JR, Weiller PJ. [Cannabisinduced arteritis vs. Léo Buerger disease. Nosologic discussion apropos of two new cases] Presse Med 1999 Jan;16 28(2):71-4.

Wenger T, Töth BE, Martin BR. Effects of anandamide (endogen cannabinoid) on anterior pituitary hormone secretion in adult ovariectomized rats. Life Sci 1995;56(23-24):2057-63.

Friedrich G, Nepita W, Andrë T. [Serum testosterone concentrations in cannabis and opiate users]. Beitr Gerichtl Med 1990;48:57-66.

Block RI, Farinpour R, Schlechte JA. Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin and cortisol in men and women. Drug Alcohol Depend 1991 Aug;28(2):121-8.

Vescovi PP, Pedrazzoni M, Michelini M, Maninetti L, Bernardelli F, Passeri M. Chronic effects of marihuana smoking on luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels in human males. Drug Alcohol Depend 1992 Apr; 30(1):59-63.

Murphy LL, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Steger RW. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol antagonism of the anterior pituitary response to estradiol in immature female rats. Steroids 1991 Feb ;56(2):97-102.

Wenger T, Croix D, Tramu G, Leonardelli J. [Marijuana and reproduction. Effects on puberty and gestation in female rats. Experimental results Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 1992;53(1):37-43.

Treinen KA, Sneeden JL, Heindel JJ. Specific inhibition of FSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cultured rat granulosa cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 1993 Jan;118(1)53-7.

Murphy LL, Gher J, Steger RW, Bartke A. Effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on copulatory behavior and neuroendocrine responses of male rats to female conspecifics. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994 Aug;48(4):41011-7.

Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Fernández-Ruiz JJ, Murphy L, Eldridge JC, Steger RW, Bartke A. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure on adrenal medullary function: evidence of an acute effect and development of tolerance in chronic treatments. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Nov;40(3):593-8.

Hollister LE. Marijuana and immunity. J Psychoactive Drugs 1992 Apr-Jun;24(2):159-64.

Castilla J, Barrio G, Belza MJ, de la Fuente L. Drug and alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviour among young adults: results from a national survey. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999 Aug 2;56(1):47-53.

Gurwitz D, Kloog Y. Do endogenous cannabinoids contribute to HIV-mediated immune failure?. Mol Med Today 1998 May;4(5);196-200.

Masset D, Bourdon JH, Arditti-Djiane J, Jouglard J. [Impact of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites on the immune system]. Acta Clin Belg Suppl 1999; 1:39-43.

Ongrádi J, Specter S, Horváth A, Friedman H. [Additive effect of marihuana and retrovirus in the anergy of natural killer cells in mice]. Orv Hetil 1999 Jan 10;140(2):81-4.

Ammenheuser MM, Berenson AB, Babiak AE, Singleton CR, Whorton EB Jr. Frequencies of hprt mutant lymphocytes in marijuana-smoking mothers and their newborns. Mutat Res 1998 Jul;403(1-2):55-64.

Szeto HH, Wu DL, Decena JA, Cheng Y. Effects of single and repeated marijuana smoke exposure on fetal EEG. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991 Sep;40(1):97-101.

Szeto HH, Wu DL, Cheng Y, Cheng PY, Decena JA. Maternal marijuana smoking alters respiratory timing in the fetal lamb. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992 Feb;43(4):1227-31.

Navarro M, Rubio P, de Fonseca FR. Behavioural consequences of maternal exposure to natural cannabinoids in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995 Nov;122(1):1-14.

Rubio P, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Martín-Calderón JL, Del Arco I, Bartolomé S, Villanúa MA, et al. Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998 Nov;61(3): 229-38.

Ambrosio E, Martín S, García-Lecumberri C, Crespo JA. The neurobiology of cannabinoid dependence: sex differences and potential interactions between cannabinoid and opioid systems. Life Sci 1999;65(6-7):687-94.

Fried PA. The Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS): methodological issues and findings— it’s easy to throw the baby out with the bath water. Life Sci 1995;56(23-24):2159-68.

Fried PA, Watkinson B. 36- and 48-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1990 Apr;11(2):49-58.

Fried PA, Watkinson B, Siegel LS. Reading and language in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1997 May-Jun;19(3):171-83.

Fried PA, Watkinson B, Gray R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 1998 May-Jun;20(3): 293-306.

Witter FR, Niebyl JR. Marijuana use in pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Am J Perinatol 1990 Jan;7(1)36-8.

Day N, Cornelius M, Goldschmidt L, Richardson G, Robles N, Taylor P. The effects of prenatal tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1992 Nov-Dec;14(6):407-14.

Kline J, Hutzler M, Levin B, Stein Z, Susser M, Warburton D. Marijuana and spontaneous abortion of known karyotype. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1991 Jul;5(3):320-2.

Day NL, Richardson GA, Geva D, Robles N. Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco: effects of prenatal exposure on offspring growth and morphology at age six. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994 Aug;18 (4):786-94.

Chandler LS, Richardson GA, Gallagher JD, Day NL. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and marijuana: effects on motor development of preschool children. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996 May;20 (3):455-61.

Balle J, Olofsson MJ, Hilden J. [Cannabis and pregnancy]. Ugeskr Laeger 1999 Sep 6;161(36): 5024-8.

Williams MA, Lieberman E, Mittendorf R, Monson RR, Schoenbaum SC. Risk factors for abruptio placentae. Am J Epidemiol 1991 Nov;134(9): 965-72.

Thompson JM, Wright SP, Mitchell EA, Clements MS, Becroft DM, Scragg RK. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants: a New Zealand study. New Zealand Cot Death Study Group. N Z Med J 1994 Mar;107(973):71-3.

Legido A. Exposición intrauterina a drogas. Rev Neurol 1997 May;25(141):691-702.

Griffith DR, Azuma SD, Chasnoff IJ. Three-year outcome of children exposed prenatally to drugs. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994 Jan;33(1):20-7.

Scher MS, Richardson GA, Robles N, Geva D, Goldschmidt L, Dahl RE, et al. Effects of prenatal substance exposure: altered maturation of visual evoked potentials. Pediatr Neurol 1998 Mar;18(3):236-43.

Leech SL, Richardson GA, Goldschmidt L, Day NL. Prenatal substance exposure: effects on attention and impulsivity of 6-year-olds. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1999 Mar-Apr; 21(2):109-18.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.