Intervención sobre problemas de conducta tempranos como prevención indicada del consumo de drogas: Siete años de seguimiento

Estrella Romero, Concepción Rodríguez, Paula Villar, X. Antón Gómez-Fraguela


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar los efectos a largo plazo de un programa manualizado que interviene sobre niños con problemas de conducta, sus familias y sus profesores. El programa involucró, durante el curso 2007-08, a 14 escuelas que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a las condiciones de intervención (45 familias participantes) y control (30 familias). A partir de un screening que identificó niños con problemas significativos de conducta en la familia y en la escuela, el programa fue aplicado en ocho de esos centros. Siete años más tarde, se pudo contactar de nuevo con 58 familias (37 de intervención y 21 control), con características equivalentes al total de participantes en el estudio inicial. Por medio de informes obtenidos de los participantes y de sus padres, y a través de comparaciones con análisis multivariables de la varianza, se apoya la eficacia del programa en la reducción de los problemas de conducta y de la implicación con amigos antisociales. Asimismo, se encuentra que el programa promueve la competencia social y comunicativa de los participantes. En cuanto al consumo de drogas, el grupo de intervención muestra actitudes menos favorables hacia las drogas, menor intención de consumo, menor frecuencia de consumo de tabaco y menor intensidad de consumo de alcohol. Estos resultados apoyan la utilidad de los programas multicomponente de intervención sobre los problemas de conducta como una vía para prevenir, a largo plazo, trayectorias de desarrollo desfavorables, en las que el consumo de drogas es una pieza fundamental.

Palabras clave

prevención indicada; problemas de conducta; niñez; consumo de drogas

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