Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento farmacológico y psicológico de los pacientes adultos con depresión y un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias

Marta Torrens, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Francina Fonseca, Magi Farré, Ana Gonzalez-Pinto, Manuel Arrojo, Miquel Bernardo, Belen Arranz, Marina Garriga, Pilar A. Saiz, Gerardo Florez, Jose Manuel Goikolea, Iñaki Zorrilla, Ruth Cunill, Xavier Castells, Elisardo Becoña, Ana Lopez, Luis San

Resumen


La concurrencia de depresión y un trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) en pacientes que presentan patología dual ha sido reconocida desde hace mucho tiempo como una consideración importante en la práctica clínica. Esta revisión sintetiza la evidencia de intervenciones farmacológicas y psicosociales para trastornos comórbidos de depresión y uso de sustancias y además proporciona recomendaciones clínicas respecto de las mejores intervenciones para tratar a estos pacientes. Se utilizó la mejor evidencia de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar las opciones de tratamiento. La fuerza de las recomendaciones se describió mediante el enfoque GRADE. Nuestros resultados sugieren que: 1) en pacientes con depresión y consumo de alcohol, se recomienda la administración de antidepresivos inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina (ISRS) no selectivos en lugar de los ISRS para mejorar los síntomas depresivos (recomendación fuerte). No se recomiendan antidepresivos ISRS (recomendación fuerte) ni antidepresivos no ISRS (recomendación débil) para reducir el consumo de alcohol; 2) en pacientes con depresión y consumo de cannabis, no se recomienda el uso de venlafaxina (recomendación débil); 3) en pacientes con depresión y consumo de cocaína, no se recomienda el uso de antidepresivos ISRS para mejorar los síntomas depresivos (recomendación débil) o para reducir el consumo de cocaína (recomendación fuerte). El uso de antidepresivos no ISRS solo se recomienda para mejorar los síntomas depresivos (recomendación fuerte); 4) no se recomienda la administración de bupropión para reducir el consumo de nicotina (recomendación fuerte), y 5) en cuanto al tratamiento psicológico, en pacientes con depresión y trastorno de alcohol concurrente, tanto la farmacoterapia como la terapia cognitivo-conductual tienen efectos positivos en la internalización de los síntomas y en la reducción del consumo de alcohol (recomendación débil). Nuestra revisión sugiere la necesidad de realizar más investigaciones en esta área y de estudios aleatorizados, multisitio y más grandes para proporcionar más evidencia definitiva.

Palabras clave


Depresión; Trastorno por uso de sustancias; Alcohol; Cocaína; Cannabis; Nicotina; Antidepresivos; Inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de serotonina.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1559

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