¿Protege o predispone la actividad física a las adicciones conductuales y otros problemas de autorregulación?

Cinderella K. Cardol, Cristopher I. Escamilla, Winifred A. Gebhardt, José C. Perales


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo aclarar las relaciones entre la actividad física de ocio (AFO) y los problemas de autorregulación (PARs) no relacionados con drogas, incluyendo las adicciones conductuales, y el papel de los rasgos de personalidad impulsiva. Estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 329, Mage = 21,20) completaron cuestionarios para cada uno de estos constructos.

La AFO de gimnasio y musculación se asoció negativamente con los PARs relacionados con videojuegos, r = -0,13, p = 0,019, 95% CI (bootstrapped) [-0,23, -0,02], y positivamente con los PARs relacionados con sexo, r = 0,16, p = 0,005, 95% CI (bootstrapped) [0,04, -0,30]. La AFO de resistencia se asoció positivamente con los PARs relacionados con la alimentación, r = 0,17, p = 0,003, 95% CI (bootstrapped) [0,02,  0,31]. La probabilidad de presentar puntuaciones potencialmente clínicas en PARs de alimentación fue 2,64 veces mayor para los encuestados en un grupo de AFO de resistencia excesiva en comparación con los otros encuestados, prueba exacta de Fisher, p = 0,017, OR = 3,10, 95% CI [1,26, 7,63], y la probabilidad de vomitar para controlar el peso fue 2,12 veces mayor en ese mismo grupo, prueba exacta de Fisher, p = 0,040, OR = 2,43, 95% CI [1,06, 5,57]. Las asociaciones fueron en gran medida independientes de los rasgos de personalidad impulsiva.

Identificamos un riesgo elevado de patología alimentaria potencialmente clínica en un subgrupo de participantes con niveles anormalmente altos de actividad física de resistencia. Esta superposición es consistente con la hipótesis de dependencia secundaria en la adicción al ejercicio.

Palabras clave

Actividad física de ocio; Ejercicio físico; Adicción al ejercicio; Autorregulación; Adicción conductual; Impulsividad; Rasgos de personalidad impulsiva.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.926

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